Do they talk to each other? 3. having “two women talking to each other about something besides a man” (Maerz 39). co/Z29Ckeus5y pic. 30 Dec 2013 Mulan (rated PG): Mulan is probably the best Disney Princess role model but much of her story revolves around her excelling in a male-dominated military environment. 8 Jun 2010 The test asks three simple questions of any given movie: 1. Yet while that's certainly frustrating, Lin's role within the army is worth celebrating. One of the women says she has rules: “One, it has to have at least two women in it, who, two,  There are movies aimed at women, the romcom, some ensemble comedies (It's Complicated) and comedies that feature women in roles of selfempowerment and emancipation (Working Girl, Nine to Five), but Kristen Wiig and Paul Feig's Bridesmaids (2011) has not produced any more raunchy clones, save Bachelorette  10 Jul 2017 Film critic Kyle Smith is facing fierce criticism online for railing against the Bechdel Test — a benchmark of whether a movie portrays women as fully formed characters — and for claiming that men dominate Hollywood because they're more inclined to tell stories about “extreme characters. 2. about their male costars. These stories save us from the tired spectacle of women fighting over some man or fighting to redeem him. 22 Dec 2014 Thanks to this site, it's getting easier to find out whether or not movies pass the Bechdel test. 18 Jul 2016 If you answer "no" to any of these, the film is also guilty of failing The Bechdel Test, another important part of feminist film criticism that shows female representation in the film. 21 Nov 2016 Others, testifying to its continuing vitality, have popped up more recently (remember the headline-making claim from 2013, that people save more if their language It doesn't pass the Bechdel test (which requires at least one scene where two named female characters discuss something other than a man),  In November 2014 Sweden took a stand in denouncing the movie industry's woeful record in gender inequality by officially embracing the Bechdel Test. This test is so basic, I'd love it if women were widely allowed to shoot the bad guys, be astronauts, solve mathematical riddles, rescue the prince(ss), and save the world. But in Hollywood, it's plainly visible in  So in other words, a female heroine with enormous courage making her way through a typically male-dominated environment scores no points. Glinda falls in love with the Wizard, and hands over to him the throne which is rightfully hers. While she gets a hero moment of  11 Jun 2014 "There seems to be a growing misconception that any film that fails the Bechdel test is inherently 'bad. 7 Nov 2013 It's not that they can't talk about men in any context, it's that woman have something to talk about of their own that isn't just reinforcing the “awesome maleness” of the male main character. Other than these two encounters, there are no other conversations that could help this movie qualify to pass the Bechdel Test. The website Vocativ recently checked  How to Raise a Girl Who's Authentic, Joyful, and Fearless--Even If She Refusesto Wear Anything but a Pink Tutu Devorah Blachor ANSWER: Because they need a man to save them, of course. of those films had equal numbers of male and female speaking characters, which is of little surprise considering 78 per cent of films had no women writing on them at all. ”:. A given work Some 678 movies check two of the three Bechdel boxes, leaving their female characters with nothing to talk about except men. 17 Sep 2014 gender biases operate in movies: 1) Does the movie have two female characters?; 2) Do they speak to each other?; 3) Do they speak about something other than a man? Sadly, many movies — even today, almost 20 years after the test was created — don't pass. 12 Nov 2013 If someone were to exclude movies on this test alone, like the character in that comic, s/he'd have to ignore films like Life of Pi (because there's only one character on display, most of the time), The Shawshank Redemption (set in a men's prison so female roles wouldn't make any sense), Saving Private  15 Dec 2015 So, using The Bechdel Test, we examined 10 of this year's top-grossing movies based on figures from Box Office Mojo to see if female characters are truly No movie will be perfect in its portrayal of everyone, and clearly the wit of the film and existing strong female characters made up for any glaring issues  18 Jul 2017 All-female casts are extremely important. I think that the Bechdel test carries within it the sharpest slap of criticism not when a movie has barely any female characters at all — but when it has plenty of  'Characters and a sweeping plot', more heavily associated with 'female-friendly' movie-making, are 'something that Hollywood has been turning away from, instead focusing on effects and production and big named stars' (Rogers 2009). In recent years, the Bechdel test has entered the mainstream — it was even a joke in an episode of “Fresh Off the Boat”: “We're talking about something other than a man. than any other ethnic group to go to the movies, and comprise 32 percent of frequent. By now, you've probably heard of the Bechdel Test. In her 1985 comic “Dykes to Watch Out For,” the cartoonist Alison Bechdel included a conversation between two women who are considering seeing a movie. In one of the most remarkable scenes in the movie, Diana dashes alone through No Man's Land, rallying the Allied forces behind her to help liberate a  To see if women are more likely to write about women (i. 29 Jun 2015 A quick way to decide whether a movie's female representation is fair or unfair is to use the Bechdel test, which has become an unofficial industry standard all that, we went ahead and pulled a few movies that stand out from the rest when it comes to male/female relationships and character development. 4 Sep 2014 The test is simple: in order for a movie to pass the test, it must have at least two female characters who talk to each other about something other than men. Hell no. Unless that little  5 May 2016 At this point I doubt there are many people out there who haven't seen this movie, so this is just a reminder that Kristen Wiig is a genius. There must be two named female characters 2. Gender Representations in Film . For the sake of practicality, I've taken the liberty to read the first criterion as only named female characters counting. In it, two women discuss a film and one of the characters says she has a rule where she only goes to see a movie if it  26 Jan 2018 The Bechdel Test began as a setup to a punch line. It's called the Bechdel test. Popular 2013 films that passed the test included The Hunger Games:  12 Jul 2017 The Bechdel Test, coined by American cartoonist Alison Bechdel, asks whether a work of fiction features 1) at least two named female characters 2) who talk to each other 3) about something other than a man. There is a discussion on 12 Years a Slave wondering if the conversation prong passes. An Analysis of How Culture. 28 Dec 2010 For those who don't know, the “test” comes from a comic in which one character cleverly gets out of going to the movies with another by saying she will only go to a movie that contains two named female characters having a conversation with each other about something other than men. That could be because a film treats women as sexual objects (the James Bond  27 Jun 2013 Left mostly to their own devices, Sandra Bullock and Melissa McCarthy do what they can, but even they are unable to save a film that is painfully broad and Bullock seems unable to sell a character who acts like she's the first bad-ass female cop who shows-up her male colleagues in the history of cinema. ) talk to each other about 3. Really, a profound truth that creates deeper, more complex, characters. It's empowering to see strong female characters and to see women's stories told with real depth. Influences the Changing Discourse on. To see if LGBT characters have been well-represented in a movie, there's the Russo test. The land of Oz was governed by three women, but it took a man —and a con man, at that — to step in and save the day. I even double checked to see if she might have had a split second conversation with a lady merchant at the marketplace. The test, generally applied to movies, measures whether a story has two or more female characters who talk to each other about something other than a man, . Error loading player: No playable sources found. Many blockbuster favorites fail the simple  22 Dec 2015 Sure, if you're adhering to the “letter” of the Bechdel-Wallace test “law,” any conversation about a male character disqualifies the film. They talk about  Numerous reviews of the film proclaimed that it “passed,” passed “with flying colors,” and even “smashed” and “busted” the “Bechdel test. The women in the bathroom are technically talking about a man, but that's because said man is currently terrorizing the town. Despite the film's focus on a young woman, despite the larger number of named female characters who speak as well as women in the background, most of the movie consists of men  13 Oct 2017 A film passes this test if “1) one female character 2) gets her own narrative arc 3) that is not about supporting a man's story. During the course of any given movie, you will have a hundred conversations between men, and yes, conversations between men and women. Milla Jovovich's character didn't  28 Jan 2015 But, you know, even in a movie where all the movers and shakers and plot coupons are men, you can still pass the Bechdel test with flying colors. 2 Nov 2017 Nevermind the Bechdel test, try this: if you can replace your female character with a sexy lamp and the story still basically works, maybe you need another draft. ' If a film fails the test it simply means female characters have no meaningful presence outside of their interactions with men. What's the . 14 Jan 2014 In the strip, one of her characters says that she wouldn't watch any movie that didn't follow three key rules. Do they talk about something other than men? If the answer to any of these questions is no then the movie fails the test, and you can check out Bechdel Test. The requirements are just what they say they are; it doesn't make any difference if, for instance, the male characters the women talk about are their fathers, sons, brothers, platonic friends, mortal enemies, patients they're trying to save or murderers they're trying to catch, rather than romantic  2 Jul 2017 If one movie fails the Bechdel test, there are any number of explanations—if we're finding that about half of all movies fail, well, maybe there's something in that. Of course as with any system that simplifies something to one part of the whole it's not perfect. The test is mostly Remember, it must feature two named female characters who talk to each other about something other than men. They must talk to each  2 Jan 2014 The analysis involved running the included films through the Bechdel Test. For a film to pass the Bechdel Test, there has to be at least two female characters who talk about something other  10 Aug 2016 If you're unfamiliar, this test was created by cartoonist Alison Bechdel (of Fun Home fame) and requires that a film 1) feature at least two named female characters who 2) engage in conversation about 3) something other than a man. That is why shows like Game of  19 Jul 2014 To answer this question, we've turned to the much-discussed Bechdel Test, which requires that a film a) contain at least two named female characters, b) who have a conversation, c) that isn't about a man. These critics point out that movies Bechdel test is inherently “bad. twitter. male-dominated landscape, the only women in the film are the main character, “Rinko Kikuchi, and two women who get no more than five lines each. ” If a film fails the test it simply means female characters have no meaningful presence outside of their interactions with men. It just means it If so, the character of Freda (little girl who rides with her brother from the Westfold to Edoras to sound the alarm) and Eowyn do technically talk, and it's not about a man either. com/PD4e9huEFj — Indiewire (@indiewire) Hollywood is promoting a culture of female invisibility, where women can't save the planet, win the big game, or fight the badwait for itguy. No one likes to see one-dimensional characters. If the Bechdel test and feminism form our lens, we might be upset that a movie like Saving Private Ryan fails it. yan basque writes for the blog irrelevant Comics, “Kirkman seems to think that men and women are fundamentally different in ways that go beyond the profile of actress anna Faris about the bechdel test, a simple method to determine if a piece of popular culture exhibits gender bias. ” Created by the  28 Jul 2017 The Bechdel Test is an incisive tool used to gauge how prominently female characters and female relationships are in popular culture. Some people, however felt that this was overly harsh – that the character of Mako Mori was a strong representation of women in general and Asian women in  22 Mar 2016 On Jane the Virgin, Jane's new adviser instructs her to make sure the romance novel she's writing passes the Bechdel test, prompting the show's narrator to assess whether On Crazy Ex-Girlfriend, guys are excuses, tools the show can use to explore the psyches and relationships of its female characters. It is simple. com . Pretty much any movie where a man is trying to save/avenge his wife, daughter, or lover (which is a crapton of movies, because women are prizes and motivations for men  25 Sep 2017 It boils down to a film, series, book, etc. this test has become the standard by  28 Dec 2012 Are there two female characters (with name, background, )? Per definition, a game like this passes the Bechdel test, because that test was no designed for this form of fiction. So while this movie passes the Bechdel Test: a  5 Nov 2014 The first part focuses on the main male character, Locke, and the main female character Skadi who has enlisted him into helping overthrow a corrupt monarchy. (Note that the third forbids any talk about a man including "we must save the president" if the president is male or "the gardener has an alibi" if the gardener is  13 Dec 2013 These questions developed as a “test” basically to find out if a particular movie was at all interested in presenting a female character as other than a romantic Wonder Woman, and other heroes are called to deal with his hostile response to arriving on Earth, and there are no other women in the story save  7 Mar 2017 So, in order to work out just how bad women have it (and how much we need to complain about this), we put some classic movies to the Bechdel Test. , pass the Bechdel test), we compiled the genders of the producers, writers, and directors on thousands of films. 3) About something besides a man. I understand that Lara Croft is not a . I devised the male equivalent of the Bechdel test, in my case a simple rule to prove a movie is willing to defy sexist conventions against men: Bechdel Test Movie List. No dice. Alison Bechdel After reading it once, I was perplexed by the fact that I couldn't recall any events where two women spoke about things other than a man. more nuanced analysis of gender bias in fictional works than the Bechdel Test, which only evaluates whether at least two female characters have a conversation about something other than a man. famous Bechdel-Wallace Test, which measures if two female characters in a story speak to each other about something that isn't related to a male character. Held up against the test's rubric, Stranger Things's grades are probably  17 Jul 2017 To review, the Bechdel Test asks whether a movie contains a scene in which two named female characters talk to each other about something other than a man. ) have two named women in it who 2. 14 Mar 2013 There aren't any female Munchkins, either. There are traditionally 3 female characters and with the saving of the world being something on the forefront of people's minds, they talk about getting it  6 Jun 2013 What is the Bechdel Test, you ask? Avatar, Star Trek (the 2009 movie), Iron Man, Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, Transformers, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Part II, the entire Lord of the Does the test make any difference to whether you would want to see a movie or not? 18 Sep 2013 'Aladdin' clearly fails the Bechdel Test. The Role of Women in Film: Supporting the Men. Once you start asking yourself these questions, it's amazing how many films fail The Bechdel Test. Elegant. Because gaming is so  28 Mar 2017 The Bechdel test is named for cartoonist Alison Bechdel whose comic strip characters openly questioned how well rounded and complete female characters in movies were. . A Force for good: why the Last Jedi is the most triumphantly feminist Star Wars movie yet. Now  The Bechdel test is a test for which a work of fiction, to pass, has to feature at least two women who talk to each other about something other than a man (Bechdel 1985). any of those movies. For now, I'll settle for  12 Dec 2017 For those unfamiliar with the Bechdel test, it was conceived by writer Alison Bechdel, first appearing in her 1985 comic strip Dykes To Watch For. Frequently this person is a female. /bech·del test/ n. The Bechdel Test Movie Night Women Directors Series presents: Saving Face (2005), an award-winning romantic comedy about right, wrong and everything  14 Nov 2013 There's been a lot of attention brought to the Bechdel test lately, with Swedish cinemas even incorporating it into their movie rating system, and holy crap, is this great. However, if the entire series carries on without any female, black, or homosexual characters who  2 Jun 2016 She needed at least two female characters who speak to each other about something other than a man. 11 Jun 2010 The Bechdel Test is a simple method of gauging the presence of female characters in a motion picture. Here are the rules as thrown down by Alison Bechdel: 1. It is impossible to beat the game without having a scene [that] passes the test, regardless of any choice you make as a gamer. Mon 18 Dec 2017 12. "Iron Man," the movie that really launched the Marvel Comics universe, features just two female characters, Pepper Potts and the reporter Tony sleeps with in the beginning of the film, who speak to each other — about Tony Stark. This was a pretty astute observation because it showed just how weak the presentation of women  21 Feb 2017 Granted, even with the Crane Corps, Lin is the only female character of any substance in The Great Wall — this movie definitely does not pass the Bechdel Test. 2) Who talk to each other. Complaining about a lack of  It wasn't meant to imply any form of moral judgement, that a movie is bad or wrong if it fails the test. The Bechdel test originated from a comic book that then, in the early 2000s, gained popularity with a number of analyses done by various places like this one from  Because People of Color in the media is important. e. And frequently, it's pretty lame. Yet the very fact that the Bechdel Test has  22 Dec 2017 Again, credit where credit is due — whatever the POC equivalent of the Bechdel Test is, The Last Jedi passes with flying colors. We most definitely need more movies that feature female characters who aren't just there to talk about the male heroes. So you can see how the Bechdel Test isn't just about feminism, but also about lazy storytelling. As statistical reporting continues to suggest that boys are saving their movie-going  A movie passes the Bechdel Test if it has A) two female characters, who B) talk to each other, C) about something other than a man. Literally anything else. From the second she meets the man deemed the movie's hero,  3 Oct 2014 Author: Katsuni So, what is the Bechdel Test, and why does it seem to be so surprisingly difficult to pass such a seemingly simple set of criteria? To begin with, the Bechdel Test is a simple and easy test to see if a work of fiction, such as a movie, book, video game, or other piece… 5 Jul 2017 FILM | Using the Bechdel Test on superhero flicks. Jasmine is the only female character of note in the entire movie and she never talks with any other female characters. In order to pass, all they need are two named female characters talking to each other about something other than men. 10 May 2013 As incongruous as it sounds, it's true: director Shane Black and his co-writer, Drew Pearce, managed to turn female characters into the stealth stars of a It also means that Iron Man 3 passes the Bechdel Test, a benchmark created by cartoonist Alison Bechdel to gauge gender bias in entertainment using  7 Oct 2017 If Wonder Woman Passed The Bechdel Test is a Rhetorical Question! And not one scene disempowers the female characters or objectifies them. Writing in National Review in 2017, film critic Kyle Smith suggested that the reason for the Bechdel test results was that "Hollywood movies are about people on the extremes of society — cops, criminals, superheroes — [which] tend to be men", and that such films were more often created by men because "women's movie  The test is often misunderstood. If you're not familiar with it already, the test simply asks whether a movie has two female characters who talk to each other at least once about something other than a man. No one agrees what a “feminist film” looks like. There was even Gals Fighters on the Neo Geo Pocket which featured nothing but women (save for the last boss, a man in drag). ” The test a six-part test: Is there a central female character, with supporting female characters, who doesn't compromise herself for love or live extravagantly for no explained reason? Bechdel Test. 18 Aug 2013 The Bechdel Test has long been the barometer of women-friendly films, but Pacific Rim fans say it doesn't give the movie's female lead enough credit. 22 Jun 2015 Oliver: We can definitely agree “Inside Out” meets all criteria of the Bechdel test, so how do we see the role of men in the film and their relationship to the female protagonists? One thing we mentioned walking out of the cinema, which we both found funny, was the “Dream Boyfriend” character. Nicole: That  12 Jan 2017 The bechdel test is a test for a movie that has two female characters speaking on something besides a man. Suicide Squad is certainly not the worst offender when it comes to the poor portrayal of women, and even critical darlings like Marvel do not pass the Bechdel test. The mako mori test is a harder test for they no longer need to be rescued. The Bechdel test is more  6 Jul 2015 The Bechdel Test is 30 years old. 16 EST Last modified on Mon 18 Dec 2017  11 Dec 2017 There was a lot—a lot—that went wrong in the culmination of the original X-Men movie trilogy. Can you see why this “test” doesn't work? Hell, even Pacific Rim features its only female character fighting alongside the men and  28 Aug 2013 The article called Rim out for its portrayal of women, citing (in one part) the Bechdel Test as evidence of the movie's poor portrayal of women. I think most people who saw the movie would agree that Lupita  16 Jan 2018 “The Last Jedi” passes the Bechdel Test in part because Leia and Holdo work together to save the Resistance sans directives from male characters. It's important to emphasise that the test is a very limited one – not passing doesn't make a film bad,  2 Mar 2017 Although it wasn't until the 2010s that The Bechdel Test found its way into mainstream film criticism, it first appeared in cartoonist Alison Bechdel's 1985 comic, Dykes to Watch Out For. Bechdel test approved, even though male/female relationships are at the center of the film, due to several conversations between the large cast of female characters about  27 Oct 2010 The Bechdel test has become a popular metric to measure the feminist quality of a movie or work of art or a way of showing how sexist media is. About something besides a man . That rules out every  12 Sep 2016 To deem movies watchable or unwatchable, the two women designed a test applicable to any work of fiction. 5 Feb 2013 Because Lesbian porn automatically qualifies and (keeping with the movie theme) Movies that take place in World War II men's prison camps do not. The Bechdel Test objectively gauges the presence of women in film, often giving an unexpected evaluation. Sounds simple, right? You'd be surprised  18 Feb 2015 The Bechdel test is a very simple set of rules that can be applied to any piece of fiction in order to figure out if it holds a male gender bias (spoiler alert: most of the time it does). As the Bechdel Test is only a litmus test for character representations and meant . Anna Smith. ” Some of these  6 Jan 2014 Amusingly, when asked to name any films that would fail a "reverse Bechdel Test" where men are unheard, unnamed and irrelevant to the plot, How to Make an American Quilt and The Women sprang to the minds of these filmgoers, though Terminator is briefly offered for consideration! Having recently  It's a common screenwriting cheat to have characters exist only to circle the leading man and explain their skills and appeal. Cultural critics regularly use the term to mean everything from it “has a functional female character in it  3 Feb 2016 To see whether a film features well-rounded female characters, you can run it through the Bechdel test, which aims to count the number of times at least two female characters talk about topics other than men. The two are rather secluded during the course of the events save for being hounded by the antagonist, one of the Queen's men hunting them down  9 Oct 2015 So how is one “supposed” to write a female character to ensure she is as close to a realistic person as possible? Some people like The Bechdel Test. One of the things I like about Sentinels of the Multiverse is that if it were a movie, it would be very easy for it to pass the Bechdel Test. 3. Do all of those films have a plot structure that precludes the interaction of two named, female characters on any topic that doesn't have to do with men? Probably not  1 May 2014 Critics are quick to dismiss the Bechdel test as useless, because it cannot determine if a movie is “sexist” or not. Now, it's one thing for In 1985, American cartoonist Alison Bechdel introduced a character who refused to watch a movie  21 Nov 2013 This works within the scope of the narrative even though it fails the Bechdel Test, and the unnecessary inclusion of elements that do not drive the narrative may be rightly seen as forced and guilty of tokenism. First, let's examine the Men are pervasive in startups, CEOs, engineering, politics – Hollywood is no exception. In any scene, do two named women speak to each other about something other than a man? And then the males all talk amongst each other for the rest of the movie. 1. Who talk to each other. Their newest princess, Moana, is a polynesian teenager on a mission to save her people from the destruction of the world. In a comic book she wrote more than 30 years ago, Alison Bechdel first mentioned the test as part of an extended joke about how persnickety  8 Mar 2017 It goes like this: "Does the movie contain two named female characters who talk to each other about something other than a man?" If so, the film passes. not exactly a womancentric film even if it does technically pass the Bechdel test. No, Kissing in the Rain Is Not Acceptable. 13 Nov 2017 New tool quantifies power imbalance between female and male characters in Hollywood movie scripts . But a movie that fails  14 Nov 2013 The Bechdel Test isn't a high bar to clear, the movie has to have at least two women characters, they have to have lines and they have to talk to each other Jane and Darcy ran off to explore some pseudo-physics phenomenon and started having a long conversation about science with no mention of men! 12 Aug 2016 Therefore, is is unacceptable when a movie that has a giant fanbase, a lot of which are female, promotes sexist and misogynistic characters. . And it's not just saving scrilla on the budgets, either. It has to have at least two [named] women in it. The franchise's terrific new instalment offers up complex female characters and dialogue that aces the Bechdel test, while still hitting all the classic marks. Do they pass the reverse-Bechdel test -- two men having a discussion about something unrelated to the women characters? A book or movie can pass the Bechdel Test and still be ridiculously degrading to women, and on the other side of the coin, a work can fail the Bechdel Test and still have feminist themes in it. For those not in the know, the Bechdel Test simply asks whether a movie has two or more women in it who talk to each other about something other than a man. Surely, that's  I'd watch a sequel based upon her character, but I think it would completely fail the Bechdel test because she's the only female character. Maybe any publicity is good publicity — but really? Is that the best they could do? 6 Judging by the comments beneath the original article in the Guardian, this kind of affirmativeaction programming still has the power to get people's knickers in  24 Jul 2013 In fact, she actually saves their lives at the end of the movie to become an Agent herself (which again is all ruined in the sequel, but that's another argument for another day). 5 Among the movies which a powerful main female character: produced by Nina Jacobson and Jon Kilik, this movie was a massive box office success. 9 Mar 2017 There is no one-size-fits-all feminism test, because that's an increasingly diffuse and subjective word that means radically different things to different people. 1) It must have two women characters. There are entire scenes in The As for Rose, she comes out of this movie with even less development than either of the male characters of color. To pass this test, a movie or any other work of fiction must feature two female characters who are talking to one another, but they cannot be talking about a man,  24 Jan 2016 Hollywood completely and utterly fails the Bechdel test, according to this infographic https://t. Their friendship In a thread on Quora, one fan writes that the movie's female lead is portrayed as “naturally awesome just by being a woman. To pass the test, a film must [1] have at least recurring female characters. It seemed that  Bruising for Besos (2016) is an intimate character study of Yoli--a charismatic Xicana lesbian making familia in a queer/trans people of color scene in Los Angeles. The test, named for graphic novelist Alison Bechdel, has three conditions: a story has to 1. The test is frequently used to critique whether a piece is inclusive of women and promotes gender  8 Dec 2017 A couple weeks ago I came across a this article, Men, women, and films from 1843 Magazine which is the Economist's lifestyle magazine. Does the context, which doesn't provide much opportunity for interaction between significant female characters, make the film any less  8 Dec 2014 The aim of the Bechdel test is to conclude “whether a movie has the space or intention to create full, realistic female characters” (Moore). Are there at least two female characters in the film? 2